WORSHIP \ Hajj and 'Umrah \ Hajj on behalf of others \
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In the Name of Allaah, All Compassionate, All Merciful
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That which benefits the deceased by way of the living
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Question: What are the things which benefit the deceased by way of the living? And is there a difference between physical and non-physical acts of worship? We hope you will clarify these issues for us, and outline a rule which we could refer to whenever we come across issues such as these; (Please) provide us with a fatwa, and may Allaah grant you blessings (in your affairs)?

Response: The deceased benefits from the action(s) of the living by way of that which (authentic) evidence indicates (permissibility) - from supplication (for the deceased), and the seeking of forgiveness for him (the deceased) and giving in charity on his (the deceased's) behalf and (performing) the Hajj and the 'Umrah on his behalf and paying off his debts and executing his Islaamic will; All of these have been legislated for. And some of the scholars have attached to this all acts of worship which a Muslim does deeming their reward for a(nother) Muslim who is alive or dead. However, that which is correct is to limit (oneself) to that which (authentic) evidence indicates (permissibility) as this will be in accordance with His (Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala) saying:

{And that man can have nothing but what he does (good or bad)}, [Soorah an-Najm, Aayah 39]

...and Allaah is the most knowledgeable (of all affairs).

Shaykh Saailh ibn Fowzaan
al-Muntaqaa min Fataawa Shaykh Saalih al-Fowzaan - Volume 2, Page 161, Fatwa No.139